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40 record(s) found




ID Author(s) Title / Description Publication Year
10725 ECDC

Climate change and food and water-borne diseases: A tool for quantitative microbial risk assessment
Climate change and food and water-borne diseases: A tool for quantitative microbial risk assessment
URL: http://foodrisk.org/default/assets/CC_and_FWD_A_Tool_for_Quantitative_Assessment.pdf

Executive summary
The transmission of food and waterborne diseases (FWD) is likely to be affected by climate change, but the extent of the impact is uncertain. This report describes…

Executive summary

The transmission of food and waterborne diseases (FWD) is likely to be affected by climate change, but the extent of the impact is uncertain. This report describes a decision support tool which has been developed to estimate the risk of infection from FWD through quantitative risk assessment for different climate change scenarios. It has been designed for the diverse climatic regions of Europe, but is not limited to these settings. The decision support tool computes the relative infection risk associated with climate change resulting from exposure to a number of human pathogens: norovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Vibrio (non cholera) and Salmonella Enteritidis. These pathogens can be combined with specific exposure pathways such as drinking water, bathing water, oysters, egg/egg products or chicken fillets. Current and projected climatic conditions for specific regions can also be set.

The decision support tool can help prioritise significant pathogen pathways under certain climatic conditions and support the implementation of targeted and effective intervention strategies. 

Background

Climate change manifests itself not only through increases in land and sea surface temperatures, but also through increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of heat waves, droughts, storm surges, precipitation, floods and other extreme weather events. These patterns are projected to continue and even intensify according to current climate models proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)(1). The bio-geographic regions of Europe differ in their susceptibility to changing environmental conditions depending on their location. The northernmost part of Europe includes a number of large bodies of water, the Eurasian continental landmass and the Arctic, all of which have unique climatic vulnerabilities. While the IPCC climate models project annual mean temperature increases of 1.0–5.5oC (for 2080–2100 compared to the average for 1961–1990), regional variations far surpass these estimates (2). The Mediterranean region is expected to warm by 6oC during the summer months and will be affected by droughts, with a fall in annual precipitation of up to 30% against current levels. Higher temperatures and lower precipitation will bring about not only water scarcity and droughts, but also heat waves, forest fires, lower crop yields, biodiversity loss, soil and ecosystem degradation, and eventually desertification. In Atlantic Europe, extreme weather events such as severe storm surges and flooding are projected to become more frequent, particularly during the winter as a result of warmer temperatures and increased moisture retention. The run-off may then result in increased river flow and higher risk of flooding in coastal areas. In central and eastern Europe an annual mean temperature rise in the order of 3–4°C is projected. However, in the more continental regions of Central Europe and around the Black Sea temperatures could climb by as much as 4–4.5°C. Projections also foresee greater extremes in heat. Annual mean precipitation could increase by up to 10% in most regions. There would be more rain during winter months, but less in summer in several areas. Consequently, an increase in river flooding is projected for the winter and more forest fires during the summer. In northern Europe (boreal region) climatic conditions will be comparable to western Europe but with more variance in temperature and precipitation: reduced lake and river ice with less snow cover and increased river flow. As a result of this warmer climate the Baltic Sea could be increasingly affected by eutrophication (algal bloom) and pollution.

Climatic conditions are key determinants of FWD transmission (3). Transport, dispersion, fate and the environmental exposure pathways of these pathogens are all intricately linked to local climate and weather conditions (4). The behaviour, viability, and reproduction rates of pathogenic food and waterborne microbes depend on environmental conditions, evidence of which is reflected in their seasonality. During the winter, concentrations of enteric water-borne pathogens in river water are typically higher than in the summer season, when elevated temperatures lead to higher die-off rates (5). In contrast, summer’s elevated temperatures are favourable for certain FWD. Similarly, the intensity and frequency of precipitation events are related to concentrations of water-borne pathogens in surface water and flooding can result in the dispersion of pathogenic microbes, while drought conditions can concentrate pathogens in surface water and determine their fate and viability.

Thus, the environmental exposure routes of food and waterborne pathogens are susceptible to the changing climatic conditions discussed above. Future human exposures, both direct and indirect, might differ significantly from current patterns. Moreover, new types of pathogens might emerge from a new ecological niche, taking advantage of favourable exposure pathways. These changes pose considerable challenges to existing public health infrastructures. Amid competing demands, the allocation of scarce resources poses a predicament for public health. In order to alleviate this difficult decisionmaking process we have developed a decision support tool to estimate infection risks from climate change. By making a quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of FWD, this decision support tool can assist decision makers in prioritising different adaptation options. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) has traditionally been used to estimate health impacts from exposure to pathogens (6-7). The interactive computational tool described here computes FWD risk due to climate change under current and future climate conditions for a number of exposure pathways. It quantifies anticipated impacts, such as the projected burden of additional cases of infectious disease under climate change scenarios, and can therefore help assess the significance or relative importance of such events. The decision support tool can also estimate the degree to which adaptation options would be likely to reduce vulnerability to the anticipated impacts. It can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation interventions and the feasibility of implementing interventions in the context of current and planned programmes and activities. For example, a number of adaptation interventions can be considered to reduce water-borne disease: upgrading water treatment and distribution systems; reinforcing drinking water regulations (and compliance) to control the introduction and spread of waterborne diseases; beach closures; public notices advising that water should be boiled or surveillance programmes for waterborne disease outbreaks.

Similarly, for food-borne diseases a number of adaptation options could be considered: stricter regulations (and compliance) in relation to food production, processing, transport and storage in order to control the introduction and spread of diseases; surveillance programmes for food-borne disease outbreaks or education programmes on appropriate food handling.

The decision support tool can be used to estimate disease burden from FWD for a number of pathogen pathway combinations under different (IPCC) climate change scenarios (8) and intervention strategies. The decision support tool is intended to stimulate collaboration between different government departments/agencies such as health, environment, agriculture, etc. Inter-sectoral collaboration can help anticipate and quantify potential impacts on society. Computing disability adjusted life years (DALYs) can also support prioritisation of different adaptationoptions, by focusing on exposure pathways rather than pathogens. Thus, it is a valuable resource for mapping the climate change vulnerability of infectious disease risk, with versatile applications for a number of settings, geographic and climatic regions.

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Source: ECDC TECHNICAL DOCUMENT

Keywords:

climate change, food analysis, microbial detection, quantitative risk assessment, water microbiology

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20111001
2011
10711 Devleesschauwer, B., et al

DALY Calculator
DALY Calculator
URL: http://studwww.ugent.be/~bdvleess/DALYcalculator/?q=0

The DALY Calculator is a free, open-source Graphical User Interface for stochastic disability-adjusted life year (DALY) calculation, developed in the R environment for statistical computing. The main goal of…

The DALY Calculator is a free, open-source Graphical User Interface for stochastic disability-adjusted life year (DALY) calculation, developed in the R environment for statistical computing. The main goal of the DALY Calculator is to provide a flexible and easy-to-use tool for DALY calculation, and to promote consistency in the uncertainty analysis of DALYs.

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Source: Devleesschauwer, B., et al

Keywords:

disability-adjusted life year, economics, statistical analysis, stochastic processes, uncertainty analysis

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10563 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization

Risk Management Tool for the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat
Risk Management Tool for the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat
URL: http://www.mramodels.org/poultryRMTool/

This web site provides access to a risk management simulation tool based on the Codex Guidelines for the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat. The tool can…

This web site provides access to a risk management simulation tool based on the Codex Guidelines for the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat. The tool can describe the complete production-to-consumption flow path described in the guidelines. These models are referred to as process flows. Users may investigate one or both pathogens and determine which steps to include in the process flow. The tool is designed to compute the residual risk between a baseline process flow and a process flow applying selected interventions as outlined in the guidelines. The residual risk measure may be used to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the applied interventions.

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization

Keywords:

Campylobacter, chicken meat, Codex Alimentarius, control methods, farm to fork, guidelines, methodology, residual effects, risk, risk management, risk reduction, Salmonella, simulation models

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20110000
2011
10383 United States Food and Drug Administration

FREE-B
FREE-B
URL: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodDefense/Training/ucm216741.htm

The Food Related Emergency Exercise Boxed set (FREE-B) is a compilation of scenarios based on both intentional and unintentional food contamination events. It is designed with the intention of…

The Food Related Emergency Exercise Boxed set (FREE-B) is a compilation of scenarios based on both intentional and unintentional food contamination events. It is designed with the intention of assisting government regulatory and public health agencies in assessing existing food emergency response plans, protocols and procedures that may be in place, or that they are in the process of revising or even developing. The FREE-B is designed to allow for multiple jurisdictions and organizations (medical community, private sector, law enforcement, first responder communities) to ‘play’ with the host agency, or, quite simply, for an individual agency to test their own plans, protocols and procedures independently.

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Source: United States Food and Drug Administration

Keywords:

crisis response plan, disaster preparedness, Food and Drug Administration, food safety education, public health, training (people)

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20110720
2011
10372 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Food Security Communications Toolkit
Food Security Communications Toolkit
URL: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2195e/i2195e00.htm

This toolkit is geared to helping food security professionals develop a communication strategy and communicate more effectively with their target audiences. Specific sections of the toolkit focus on policy…

This toolkit is geared to helping food security professionals develop a communication strategy and communicate more effectively with their target audiences. Specific sections of the toolkit focus on policy makers and the media, because of the important role they play in implementing and influencing food security policies.The toolkit also looks at specific information products such as policy briefs, reports and early warning bulletins, and suggests ways to structure and improve them. A section on writing effectively, which focuses on grammar and style, makes sure that written documents are easy to read. Finally, the toolkit gives tips for using the internet, social media and Web 2.0 tools as these technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for engaging in two way dialogues with global audiences. The toolkit also includes readymade templates and dozens of tips and tricks distilled from many years of experience.

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Keywords:

audience assessment, communication (human), Food and Agriculture Organization, food defense, food law, food security, issues and policy, message mapping, methodology, news media, risk communication, writing skills

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20110000
2011
10024 Tennessee Government

Hepatitis B vaccination questionnaire
Hepatitis B vaccination questionnaire
URL: http://www.naccho.org/toolbox/tool.cfm?id=417

Hepatitis B vaccination questionnaire for the incarcerated. 2 page Word document. Topics include: incarceration history, sexual history, and drug history.

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Source: National Association of County and City Health Officials

Keywords:

drugs, Hepatitis B virus, questionnaires, sexual behavior, vaccination

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20060810
2006
10022 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC Communication Tools for Schools
CDC Communication Tools for Schools
URL: http://www.naccho.org/toolbox/tool.cfm?id=1752

This is a template developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a letter for school administrators to distribute to parents regarding influenza.

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Source: National Association of County and City Health Officials

Keywords:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, children, guidelines, human influenza, parents, risk communication, schools

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20090922
2009
9835 Smid, J.H.; Swart, A.N.; Havelaar, A.H.; Pielaat, A.

Practical Framework for the Construction of a Biotracing Model: Application to Salmonella in the Pork Slaughter Chain
A Practical Framework for the Construction of a Biotracing Model: Application to Salmonella in the Pork Slaughter Chain
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01591.x

A novel purpose of the use of mathematical models in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is to identify the sources of microbial contamination in a food chain (i.e.,biotracing). In…

A novel purpose of the use of mathematical models in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is to identify the sources of microbial contamination in a food chain (i.e., biotracing). In this article we propose a framework for the construction of a biotracing model, eventually to be used in industrial food production chains where discrete numbers of products are processed that may be contaminated by a multitude of sources. The framework consists of steps in which a Monte Carlo model, simulating sequential events in the chain following a modular process risk modeling (MPRM) approach, is converted to a Bayesian belief network (BBN). The resulting model provides a probabilistic quantification of concentrations of a pathogen throughout a production chain. A BBN allows for updating the parameters of the model based on observational data, and global parameter sensitivity analysis is readily performed in a BBN. Moreover, a BBN enables “backward reasoning” when downstream data are available and is therefore a natural framework for answering biotracing questions. The proposed framework is illustrated with a biotracing model of Salmonella in the pork slaughter chain, based on a recently published Monte Carlo simulation model. This model, implemented as a BBN, describes the dynamics of Salmonella in a Dutch slaughterhouse and enables finding the source of contamination of specific carcasses at the end of the chain.

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Source: Risk Analysis, [Epub ahead of print], Mar. 18, 2011.

Keywords:

farm to fork, food supply, methodology, microbial contamination, microbiological risk assessment, models, Monte Carlo method, pork, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, Salmonella, slaughter, source attribution, swine

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20110318
2011
9639 Environmental Systems Research Institute

ArcGIS Online: Maps and Apps for Everyone
ArcGIS Online: Maps and Apps for Everyone
URL: http://www.arcgis.com/home/

ArcGIS.com is a Web site for working with maps and other types of geographic information. Visit the site to create maps; find and use maps, applications, and tools; and…

ArcGIS.com is a Web site for working with maps and other types of geographic information. Visit the site to create maps; find and use maps, applications, and tools; and share your maps and applications with others. Within the site, you will find applications for building and sharing maps. You will also find useful basemaps, data, applications, and tools that you can view and use, plus communities you can join.

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Source: Environmental Systems Research Institute

Keywords:

communication (human), computer software, geographic information systems

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9632 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Water-related Outbreak Response Toolkits and Resources
Water-related Outbreak Response Toolkits and Resources
URL: http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/toolkit/

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has created multiple outbreak response toolkits and other resources to assist public health professionals during their outbreak response to save time…

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has created multiple outbreak response toolkits and other resources to assist public health professionals during their outbreak response to save time on creating tools so more time can be spent on the investigation. This finding aid directs the user to many such tools. 

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Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Keywords:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disease outbreaks, disease surveillance, drinking water, outbreak investigation, water

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9575 Food Insight, International Food Information Council Foundation

Tools for Effective Communication: Beginning a New Nutrition Conversation with Consumers
Tools for Effective Communication: Beginning a New Nutrition Conversation with Consumers
URL: http://www.foodinsight.org/For-Professionals/Tools-for-Effective-Comm.aspx

This website describes the role of nutrition and health communicators in terms of risk communication with consumers and provides a list of tools for effective consumer communication. 

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Source: Food Insight, International Food Information Council Foundation

Keywords:

consumer attitudes, consumer behavior, methodology, nutrition, risk communication

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9573 Office of the Associate Director of Communication, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Health Communicator's Social Media Toolkit
The Health Communicator's Social Media Toolkit
URL: http://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/ToolsTemplates/SocialMediaToolkit_BM.pdf

This resource is a guide to using social media to improve reach of health messages, increase access to your content, further participation with audiences and advance transparency to improve…

This resource is a guide to using social media to improve reach of health messages, increase access to your content, further participation with audiences and advance transparency to improve health communication efforts.

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Source: Office of the Associate Director of Communication, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Keywords:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, methodology, public health, risk communication

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20100806
2010
9439 Barber, D.A.; Miller, G.Y.; McNamara, P.E.

Models of antimicrobial resistance and foodborne illness: examining assumptions and practical applications
Models of antimicrobial resistance and foodborne illness: examining assumptions and practical applications
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/2003/00000066/00000004/art00027

Several investigators have suggested that antibiotic use in food-producing animals is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms causing illness in humans. In this paper, the…

Several investigators have suggested that antibiotic use in food-producing animals is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms causing illness in humans. In this paper, the researchers discuss this and other assumptions relevant to a quantitative risk assessment model for salmonellosis in humans. The researchers also discuss other important aspects of modeling food safety and food-associated antimicrobial resistance risk to humans. 

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 66, No. 4, April 1, 2003, p. 700-9.

Keywords:

antibiotic resistance, disease incidence, methodology, models, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, Salmonella

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20030401
2003
9305 Nguyen, T.N.; Jakus, P.M.; Riddel, M.; Shaw, W.D.

Empirical Model of Perceived Mortality Risks for Selected U.S. Arsenic Hot Spots
An Empirical Model of Perceived Mortality Risks for Selected U.S. Arsenic Hot Spots
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01450.x

Recent work suggests that uncertainty about risks also plays a role in predicting choices and behavior. In this article, researchers develop and estimate a formal model for an individual's…

Recent work suggests that uncertainty about risks also plays a role in predicting choices and behavior. In this article, researchers develop and estimate a formal model for an individual's perceived health risks associated with arsenic contamination of his or her drinking water. The modeling approach treats risk as a random variable, with an estimable probability distribution whose variance reflects uncertainty. The model the researchers estimate uses data collected from a survey given to a sample of people living in arsenic-prone areas in the United States. 

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 10, Oct. 2010, p. 1550-1562.

Keywords:

arsenic, consumer attitudes, consumer behavior, drinking water, models, risk perception, uncertainty

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20101000
2010
9296 Soumpasis, I.; Butler, F.

Development of a Self-Regulated Dynamic Model for the Propagation of Salmonella Typhimurium in Pig Farms
Development of a Self-Regulated Dynamic Model for the Propagation of Salmonella Typhimurium in Pig Farms
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01482.x

A self-regulated epidemic model was developed to describe the dynamics ofSalmonellaTyphimurium in pig farms and predict the prevalence of different risk groups at slaughter age. The model was focused…

A self-regulated epidemic model was developed to describe the dynamics of Salmonella Typhimurium in pig farms and predict the prevalence of different risk groups at slaughter age. The model was focused at the compartment level of the pig farms and it included two syndromes, a high and a low propagation syndrome. These two syndromes generated two different classes of pigs, the High Infectious and the Low Infectious, respectively, which have different shedding patterns. 

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan. 2011, p. 63-77.

Keywords:

disease prevalence, epidemiology, methodology, models, pork, Salmonella typhi, swine

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20110100
2011
9233 World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety

Risk Assessment Toolkit
Risk Assessment Toolkit
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/harmonization/areas/ra_toolkit/en/index.html

The WHO/IPCS Risk Assessment Toolkit (RA Toolkit) project aims to make the international tools on chemical risk assessment more readily accessible, especially to relevant stakeholders in developing countries and…

The WHO/IPCS Risk Assessment Toolkit (RA Toolkit) project aims to make the international tools on chemical risk assessment more readily accessible, especially to relevant stakeholders in developing countries and countries with economies in transition.

This website includes records of the meeting introducing the pilot phase of the draft WHO Risk Assessment Toolkit in Thailand, Malaysia and China (Bangkok meeting, July 2009).

The RA Toolkit is organized into sections that provide:

-An overview of chemical RA, including the RA framework and uses of RA;

-Generic road maps for how to conduct RA;

-Listing of international resources that are useful for conducting RAs; and

-Examples of how that information can be applied to a RA question, including case-specific roadmaps.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

methodology, risk assessment

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9024 Survey Share

Survey Share
Survey Share
URL: http://surveyshare.com/

SurveyShare is a web site that lets users design and conduct online surveys. Surveys and response data are hosted on our secure servers. Each survey is given a unique…

SurveyShare is a web site that lets users design and conduct online surveys. Surveys and response data are hosted on our secure servers. Each survey is given a unique web address (URL) where respondents can take the survey. It is possible to see the results, along with simple averages and percentages, and access the individual responses and collected results in real-time as respondents complete your survey. SurveyShare provides limited cross-tabulation options as well as customizable charts and graphs to help you analyze your data. For more sophisticated analyses,  download survey data and examine it with statistics tools or spreadsheet software. 

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Source: Survey Share

Keywords:

computer software, questionnaires, statistics, surveys

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9023 Survey Monkey

Survey Monkey
Survey Monkey
URL: http://www.surveymonkey.com/

Survey Monkey is a paid account allowing the user to generate electronic surveys, collect responses, and analyze results for a variety of professional and personal needs. 

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Source: Survey Monkey

Keywords:

computer software, questionnaires, surveys

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00000000
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8874 French, N.; Marshall, J.

Dynamic modelling of Campylobacter sources in the Manawatu
Dynamic modelling of Campylobacter sources in the Manawatu
URL: http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/dynamic-modelling-campylobacter-research-projects/dynamic-modelling-massey.pdf

In this paper, the authors summarize the application of extensions to the Hald, Dutch, and Island models for source attribution to the isolates from a sentinel collection site over…

In this paper, the authors summarize the application of extensions to the Hald, Dutch, and Island models for source attribution to the isolates from a sentinel collection site over a 4 year period, focusing on the temporal variation in the attribution through time.

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Source: New Zealand Food Safety Authority

Keywords:

bacteria, biological hazards, Campylobacter, Campylobacter jejuni, models, source attribution

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20090800
2009
8859 Busschaerta, P.; Geeraerda, A.H.; Uyttendaeled, M.; Van Impe, J.M.

Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis Of Censored Microbiological Contamination Data For Use In Risk Assessment And Mitigation
Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis Of Censored Microbiological Contamination Data For Use In Risk Assessment And Mitigation
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2010.06.006

In this paper, distributions aret using Bayesian analysis, and results are compared to results obtained with a methodology based on maximum likelihood estimation and the nonparametric bootstrap method.

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Source: Food Microbiology, [Epub ahead of print], Jun. 30, 2010

Keywords:

Bayesian theory, biological hazards, control methods, food contamination, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, quantitative analysis, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, risk reduction

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20100630
2010
8751 Multnomah County Health Department, Oregon Department of Human Services

Food Defense Toolkit
Food Defense Toolkit
URL: http://web.multco.us/documents/food-defense-toolkit

Multnomah County Environmental Health, with funding from the Food and Drug Administration, has created this Food Defense toolkit to help restaurants secure their facilities from intentional food contamination. The…

Multnomah County Environmental Health, with funding from the Food and Drug Administration, has created this Food Defense toolkit to help restaurants secure their facilities from intentional food contamination. The toolkit uses an 8-point risk assessment system to prompt restaurant managers to monitor frequently overlooked security areas and offers suggested remedies that can be tailored to each restaurant’s unique situation. An employee training guide, training videos and posters complete the toolkit.

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Source: Multnomah County Health Department, Oregon Department of Human Services

Keywords:

food defense, food service

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8728 SupraMap

SupraMap
SupraMap
URL: http://www.supramap.osu.edu/

This web application allows users a way to integrate genotypic and phenotypic data in a geospatial context. When viewed in a virtual globe (e.g. Google Earth or NASA WorldWind),…

This web application allows users a way to integrate genotypic and phenotypic data in a geospatial context. When viewed in a virtual globe (e.g. Google Earth or NASA WorldWind), the user has an interactive map of the spread of various lineages of organisms (e.g. strains of pathogens) over the earth.

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Source: SupraMap

Keywords:

bacteria, molecular biology, pathogens

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8561 Little, C.L., et al

Attribution of Human Listeria monocytogenes Infections in England and Wales to Ready-to-Eat Food Sources Placed on the Market: Adaptation of the Hald Salmonella Source Attribution Model
Attribution of Human Listeria monocytogenes Infections in England and Wales to Ready-to-Eat Food Sources Placed on the Market: Adaptation of the Hald Salmonella Source Attribution Model
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2009.0439

Here, the authors adapted and applied the Hald model to L. monocytogenes to determine whether such an approach may provide further insight and quantify the relative importance of food…

Here, the authors adapted and applied the Hald model to L. monocytogenes to determine whether such an approach may provide further insight and quantify the relative importance of food sources to listeriosis cases, including risk population groups such as the elderly.

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Source: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 7, No. 7, Jul. 4, 2010, p. 749-56.

Keywords:

at-risk population, immunocompromised population, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes, models, ready-to-eat foods, Salmonella, source attribution

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20100704
2010
8484 Rijgersberg, H.; Tromp, S.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

Modeling Logistic Performance in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
Modeling Logistic Performance in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01338.x

In this article, the authors present the application of discrete-event modeling in the context of a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) for Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Moreover,…

In this article, the authors present the application of discrete-event modeling in the context of a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) for Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Moreover, the authors show the potential value of discrete-event modeling in QMRA by calculating logistic interventions (modifications in the logistic chain) and determining their significance with respect to food safety.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan. 2010, p. 20-31.

Keywords:

biological hazards, lettuce, Listeria monocytogenes, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20100100
2010
8311 International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

Software Downloads: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
Software Downloads: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
URL: http://www.icmsf.iit.edu/main/software_downloads.html

This page offers two download-able software programs, microbiological sampling plans and download standard program, a new version related to a publication printed in the journal Food Control.

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Source: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

Keywords:

microbiology, microorganisms, population characteristics, predictive microbiology, probability distribution, research projects

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8253 Hanson, T.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.

Hierarchical Models for Estimating Herd Prevalence and Test Accuracy in the Absence of a Gold Standard
Hierarchical Models for Estimating Herd Prevalence and Test Accuracy in the Absence of a Gold Standard
URL: http://faculty.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/faculty/iagardner/diagnostictests/pub-hanson.pdf

In this study, the authors propose a class of hierarchical models for the purpose of estimating the herd-level prevalence distribution and the accuracies of two tests in the absence…

In this study, the authors propose a class of hierarchical models for the purpose of estimating the herd-level prevalence distribution and the accuracies of two tests in the absence of a gold standard when several exchangeable populations with differing disease prevalence are available for sampling, relaxing the assumption of conditional independence between tests. The models are used to estimate the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in Mexican cow herds and to estimate the error rates of two tests for the detection of swine pneumonia.

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Source: Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun. 1, 2003, p. 223-239.

Keywords:

animal diseases, beef cows, Brucella, cattle, detection, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, models, pork, reference standards, statistics, swine

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20030601
2003
8076 Soumpasis, I.; Butler, F.

Development and application of a stochastic epidemic model for the transmission of Salmonella typhimurium at the farm level of the pork production chain
Development and application of a stochastic epidemic model for the transmission of Salmonella typhimurium at the farm level of the pork production chain
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01274.x

In previous work a deterministic model for the compartment level was built, taking into account the two different syndromes with which Salmonella Typhimurium appears at pig farms. Based on…

In previous work a deterministic model for the compartment level was built, taking into account the two different syndromes with which Salmonella Typhimurium appears at pig farms. Based on this model, a stochastic one was built in this work that simulated different compartmental sizes, taking into account compartments of 200 to 400 pigs. Multiple scenarios of starting conditions of infection were tested for each population size. The effect of each of these two factors on the probability of disease extinctions and the prevalence of each of the classes of the model and the risk groups of pigs were estimated.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov. 2009, p. 1521–33.

Keywords:

models, pork, Salmonella, swine

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20091100
2009
8046 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

CARVER + Shock Software Tool
CARVER + Shock Software Tool
URL: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodDefense/CARVER/default.htm

CARVER + Shock is an offensive targeting prioritization tool adapted from the military version (CARVER) for use in the food industry. The tool can be used to assess the…

CARVER + Shock is an offensive targeting prioritization tool adapted from the military version (CARVER) for use in the food industry. The tool can be used to assess the vulnerabilities within a system or infrastructure to an attack. It allows the user to think like an attacker to identify the most attractive targets for an attack. By conducting a CARVER + Shock assessment of a food production facility or process, the user can determine the most vulnerable points in their infrastructure, and focus resources on protecting the most susceptible points in their system.

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Source: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords:

computer software, food defense

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20090000
2009
8007 Mullner, P.; Jones, G.; Noble, A.; Spencer, S.E.F.; Hathaway, S.; French, N.P.

Source Attribution of Food-Borne Zoonoses in New Zealand: A Modified Hald Model
Source Attribution of Food-Borne Zoonoses in New Zealand: A Modified Hald Model
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2009.01224.x

A Bayesian approach was developed by Hald et al. to estimate the contribution of different food sources to the burden of human salmonellosis in Denmark. This article describes the…

A Bayesian approach was developed by Hald et al. to estimate the contribution of different food sources to the burden of human salmonellosis in Denmark. This article describes the development of several modifications that can be used to adapt the model to different countries and pathogens.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 7, Mar. 30 2009, p. 970-984.

Keywords:

burden of disease, Campylobacter, microbiological risk assessment, models, Salmonella, source attribution, zoonoses

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20090330
2009
8000 National Association of County and City Health Officials

NACCHO Toolbox
NACCHO Toolbox
URL: http://www.naccho.org/toolbox/

This Toolbox is an area on NACCHO's Web site where you can find useful public-health-related tools. Toolbox is a free service available for public use, intended to promote and…

This Toolbox is an area on NACCHO's Web site where you can find useful public-health-related tools. Toolbox is a free service available for public use, intended to promote and advance public health objectives. Enter a keyword or select a toolkit to find search-able information.

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Source: National Association of County and City Health Officials

Keywords:

public health

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7253 Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2.0
Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2.0
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=12083

Database of foods, their nutrient values, and weights for typical food portions, including data for food energy and 62 nutrients/food components. The database is available for download in Microsoft…

Database of foods, their nutrient values, and weights for typical food portions, including data for food energy and 62 nutrients/food components. The database is available for download in Microsoft Access or ASCII delimited file format

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Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

databases, exposure, food intake, nutrients, nutrition

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20060803
2006
6258 Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

What's In The Foods You Eat Search Tool
What's In The Foods You Eat Search Tool
URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=17032

Searchable database of nutrient values in 13,000 foods based on the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

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Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

databases, exposure, food intake, nutrients, nutrition, nutrition assessment

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5663 DHHS, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/RTI

Cost of Reformulating Foods and Cosmetics
Cost of Reformulating Foods and Cosmetics
URL: http://foodrisk.org/exclusives/CRFC/

Foods and cosmetics are examples of regulated products which are sometimes reformulated in response to changes in the marketplace or regulatory environment. RTI and the Economics Team at the…

Foods and cosmetics are examples of regulated products which are sometimes reformulated in response to changes in the marketplace or regulatory environment. RTI and the Economics Team at the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) produced this model, based on the earlier labeling cost model, to help estimate the costs incurred in reformulation due to changes in regulations. The report provides information on the process of reformulation and a description of the underlying assumptions and calculations used in developing the model. Instructions for using the model are in Section 4 of the report

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Source: DHHS, CFSAN, Food and Drug Administration/RTI

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, economics, mathematical models, risk management, simulation models

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20020700
2002
4450 Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Studies, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Short Dietary Assessment Instruments
Short Dietary Assessment Instruments
URL: http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/index.html

Short instruments for assessing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and percent energy from fat

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Source: Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Studies, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

Keywords:

dietary exposure, dietary recommendations, food intake, fruits (food), nutrition, nutrition assessment, vegetables

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4449 Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Diet History Questionnaire
Diet History Questionnaire
URL: http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/DHQ/

Food frequency questionnaire and supporting software and nutrient databases for estimating nutrient and food group intake based on the questionnaire

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Source: Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, Applied Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Studies, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health

Keywords:

diet, food intake, nutrition, nutrition assessment

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3730 Bunch, S.; Murphy, S.

WorldFood Dietary Assessment System
WorldFood Dietary Assessment System
URL: http://www.fao.org/infoods/software_worldfood_en.stm

The WorldFood Dietary Assessment System is designed to facilitate rapid dietary assessment using an IBM-compatible personal computer. A list of 1800 foods reported in six countries (Egypt, Kenya, Mexico,…

The WorldFood Dietary Assessment System is designed to facilitate rapid dietary assessment using an IBM-compatible personal computer. A list of 1800 foods reported in six countries (Egypt, Kenya, Mexico, Senegal, India, and Indonesia) has been compiled and can be accessed through user-friendly menus. Users can specify foods and amounts in a one-day diet using a menu-driven food selection process. The system provides totals for 48 nutrients and percents of internationally recommended intakes for 21 nutrients.

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Source: International Network of Food Data Systems, Food and Nutrition Division, Economic and Social Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Keywords:

nutrients, nutrition, nutrition assessment

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19960000
1996
2601 Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator
Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator
URL: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/FoodborneIllness/

Tool for estimating the costs of illness for selected foodborne illnesses. Assumptions used in the estimate may be changed to reflect the desired scenario. ERS calculated costs are also…

Tool for estimating the costs of illness for selected foodborne illnesses. Assumptions used in the estimate may be changed to reflect the desired scenario. ERS calculated costs are also given, and the assumptions used in calculating these costs may be examined

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Source: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

biological hazards, cost of illness analysis, economics, mathematical models, risk management, simulation models

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2250 DMST, Office of Scientific Analysis and Support (OSAS), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/RTI

FDA Labeling Cost Model
FDA Labeling Cost Model
URL: http://foodrisk.org/exclusives/fdalcm/

An update to RTI's 1990 labeling cost model to better meet the FDA's current needs in estimating labeling costs. The report, entitled "FDA Labeling Cost Model: Final Report," includes…

An update to RTI's 1990 labeling cost model to better meet the FDA's current needs in estimating labeling costs. The report, entitled "FDA Labeling Cost Model: Final Report," includes background information, discussion of the revised cost estimates used in the model, a description of the assumptions and calculations used, and instructions for using the model. The model and instructions are downloadable. Software requirements: Stata and Microsoft Excel.
Acknowledgement:
With special thanks to the Economics Team in FDA-CFSAN, Office of Scientific Analysis and Support, Division of Market Studies

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, economics, food labeling, mathematical models, risk management, simulation models

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20030100
2003
508 Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University/International Food Policy Research Institute/World Resources Institute

Gridded Population of the World (v3)
Gridded Population of the World (v3)
URL: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp

Population estimates and densities for 1990 and 1995 on a 2.5' grid. Includes land area and population counts for many regions

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Source: Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University

Keywords:

databases, demographic statistics, population density, population dynamics

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00000000
n/a
39 Mark W.

TSE Risk Path Analyzer
TSE Risk Path Analyzer
URL: http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/fsrac/tsepaths.html

Tool for examining potential exposure pathways of transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

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Source: Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Keywords:

computer software, cumulative exposure, disease transmission, exposure, exposure pathways, prion diseases, prions, risk

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