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66 record(s) found




ID Author(s) Title / Description Publication Year
9553 Vose, D.

Risk Analysis, a Quantitative Guide, 3rd Ed.
Risk Analysis, a Quantitative Guide, 3rd Ed.
URL: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-EHEP000949.html

This book concerns itself with the quantification of risk, the modeling of identified risks and how to make decisions from those models. Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) using Monte Carlo…

This book concerns itself with the quantification of risk, the modeling of identified risks and how to make decisions from those models. Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) using Monte Carlo simulation offers a powerful and precise method for dealing with the uncertainty and variability of a problem. By providing the building blocks the author guides the reader through the necessary steps to produce an accurate risk analysis model and offers general and specific techniques to cope with most modeling problems. A wide range of solved problems is used to illustrate these techniques and how they can be used together to solve otherwise complex problems.

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Source: Risk Media Limited

Keywords:

decision support systems, educational materials, methodology, models, Monte Carlo method, quantitative analysis, quantitative risk assessment, risk analysis, risk assessment, uncertainty, variability

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20080500
2008
9552 Doyle, M.P., ed.; Schaffner, D., ed.

Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods
Microbial Risk Analysis of Foods
URL: http://estore.asm.org/viewItemDetails.asp?ItemID=715

This volume takes a comprehensive and expansive approach to the subject of microbial risk assessment, including information for beginning risk assessors who need to take the next step in…

This volume takes a comprehensive and expansive approach to the subject of microbial risk assessment, including information for beginning risk assessors who need to take the next step in their education, as well as for university researchers, graduate students, industry analysts, and government risk managers.

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Source: ASM Press

Keywords:

educational materials, food pathogens, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, research, risk analysis, risk assessment

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20080000
2008
9395 Williams, M.S.; Ebel, E.D.; Vose, D.

Framework for Microbial Food-Safety Risk Assessments Amenable to Bayesian Modeling
Framework for Microbial Food-Safety Risk Assessments Amenable to Bayesian Modeling
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01532.x

Regulatory agencies often perform microbial risk assessments to evaluate the change in the number of human illnesses as the result of a new policy that reduces the level of…

Regulatory agencies often perform microbial risk assessments to evaluate the change in the number of human illnesses as the result of a new policy that reduces the level of contamination in the food supply. This study proposes a framework for conducting microbial food-safety risk assessments; this framework can be used to quantitatively assess the annual effects of national regulatory policies. Advantages of the framework are that estimates of human illnesses are consistent with national disease surveillance data (which are usually summarized on an annual basis) and some of the modeling steps that occur between production and consumption can be collapsed or eliminated. The framework leads to probabilistic models that include uncertainty and variability in critical input parameters; these models can be solved using a number of different Bayesian methods. 

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Source: Risk Analysis, [Epub ahead of print], Nov. 24, 2010.

Keywords:

Bayesian theory, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, monitoring, probability distribution, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20101124
2010
9367 Buchanan, R.; Smith, J.; Long, W.

Microbial risk assessment: dose-response relations and risk characterization
Microbial risk assessment: dose-response relations and risk characterization
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939266

This article illustrates that characterizations of the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are dependent on the availability of information on the population's exposure to the biological agents. However, by…

This article illustrates that characterizations of the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are dependent on the availability of information on the population's exposure to the biological agents. However, by itself, exposure data are insufficient to assess the public health impact of pathogenic microorganisms. This requires the availability of effective dose-response models. Successful development of models that describe dose-response relations for enteric pathogens is dependent on a sound understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenicity associated with individual pathogens. This includes knowledge of how the various pathogen, host, and food matrix factors influence pathogenicity. This paper explains that advances in microbial food safety risk assessment will likely require the development of mechanistic models that effectively consider the range of factors that influence the frequency and severity of foodborne infections in a population.

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 58, No. 3, Jul 2000, p. 159-72.

Keywords:

biological hazards, dose response, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, public health, risk assessment, risk characterization

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20000700
2000
9364 van Gerwen, S., et al.

Stepwise quantitative risk assessment as a tool for characterization of microbiological food safety
Stepwise quantitative risk assessment as a tool for characterization of microbiological food safety
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10849169

This paper describes a system for the microbiological quantitative risk assessment for food products and their production processes. The system applies a stepwise risk assessment, allowing the main problems…

This paper describes a system for the microbiological quantitative risk assessment for food products and their production processes. The system applies a stepwise risk assessment, allowing the main problems to be addressed before focusing on less important problems. The system for quantitative risk assessment has been implemented as a decision supporting expert system called SIEFE: Stepwise and Interactive Evaluation of Food safety by an Expert System. SIEFE performs bacterial risk assessments in a structured manner, using various information sources. Because all steps are transparent, every step can easily be scrutinized. In this study the effectiveness of SIEFE is shown for a cheese spread. This example shows that SIEFE provides quantitative insights into production processes and their risk-determining factors to both risk assessors and decision makers, and highlights critical gaps in knowledge.

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Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 88, No. 6, 2000, p. 938-51.

Keywords:

cheeses, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20000000
2000
9362 Marks H.; Coleman M.; Lin C.; Roberts, T.

Topics in microbial risk assessment: dynamic flow tree process.
Topics in microbial risk assessment: dynamic flow tree process.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1998.tb01298.x

This article presents a systematic approach to microbial risk assessment that employs data analysis for developing parsimonious models and accounts formally for the variability and uncertainty of model inputs…

This article presents a systematic approach to microbial risk assessment that employs data analysis for developing parsimonious models and accounts formally for the variability and uncertainty of model inputs using analysis of variance and Monte Carlo simulation. The purpose of the paper is to raise and examine issues in conducting microbial risk assessments. The enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 was selected as an example for this study due to its significance to public health.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jun. 1998, p. 309-28.

Keywords:

dose response, Escherichia coli, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, Monte Carlo method, risk assessment, Shigella, temperature, uncertainty, variability

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19980600
1998
9361 Vose, D.J.

application of quantitative risk assessment to microbial food safety
The application of quantitative risk assessment to microbial food safety
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000005/art00025

This article illustrates that quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is rapidly accumulating recognition as the most practical method for assessing the risks associated with microbial contamination of foodstuffs. This paper…

This article illustrates that quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is rapidly accumulating recognition as the most practical method for assessing the risks associated with microbial contamination of foodstuffs. This paper looks at a number of modeling techniques that can help produce more realistic and accurate Monte Carlo simulation models. This article also explains the use and limitations of several distributions important to microbial risk assessment.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 5, May 1998, p. 640-8.

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, Monte Carlo method, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, simulation models, statistical analysis, uncertainty

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19980500
1998
9360 Hathaway, S.; Cook, R.

regulatory perspective on the potential uses of microbial risk assessment in international trade
A regulatory perspective on the potential uses of microbial risk assessment in international trade
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(97)01263-4

This article describes the increased desire for quantitative data on the microbial risks associated with different classes of foods and its potential use within microbial risk assessement in international…

This article describes the increased desire for quantitative data on the microbial risks associated with different classes of foods and its potential use within microbial risk assessement in international trade.

This article explains that as the risk assessment paradigm is increasing applied and as decision-making criteria for risk management become established, more emphasis will be placed on predictive microbiology as a means of generating exposure data and establishing critical limits for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans. In this respect, developing international guidelines for risk management arguably presents the greatest challenge in establishing and maintaining quantitative Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SP) measures for food in international trade, and for judging their equivalence.

 

 

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 36, No. 2-3, May 1997, p. 127-133.

Keywords:

good manufacturing practices, HACCP, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, risk management, trade

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19970500
1997
9359 Foegeding, P.M.

Driving predictive modelling on a risk assessment path for enhanced food safety
Driving predictive modelling on a risk assessment path for enhanced food safety
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(97)01259-2

This article emphasizes that risk assessment provides the critical scientific basis to better protect public health and gain the greatest impact towards safer food by providing the tools to…

This article emphasizes that risk assessment provides the critical scientific basis to better protect public health and gain the greatest impact towards safer food by providing the tools to effectively address important risk management decisions.

This article also mentions that quantitative data is critical for risk assessment to realize its full value. Predictive modeling should help to improve estimates and thereby allow quantitation of food safety risks. Predictive modeling will also find application for assessing prevention strategies in risk management.

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 36, No. 2-3, May 1997, p. 87-95

Keywords:

methodology, models, predictive microbiology, risk assessment

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19970500
1997
9358 ICMSF Working Group on Microbial Risk Assessment, International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

Potential Application of Risk Assessment Techniques to Microbiological Issues Related to International Trade in Food and Food Products
Potential Application of Risk Assessment Techniques to Microbiological Issues Related to International Trade in Food and Food Products
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000008/art00028

This article explains that one of the components of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement that will have far-reaching effects on international…

This article explains that one of the components of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement that will have far-reaching effects on international trade in foods and food products is the requirement for countries to provide risk assessments as part of the process of resolving disputes that involve food safety issues.

Risk assessment is a means of evaluating the likelihood and impact of hazards. It provides a framework for systematically considering available data, providing rationales for assumptions, and identifying areas where additional information is needed.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection®, Volume 61, Number 8, August 1998 , pp. 1075-1086(12)

Keywords:

food inspection, HACCP, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, trade

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19980800
1998
9356 McNab, W.B.

General Framework Illustrating an Approach to Quantitative Microbial Food Safety Risk Assessment
A General Framework Illustrating an Approach to Quantitative Microbial Food Safety Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000009/art00026

This article presents a framework for a Monte Carlo model of a generic food system to illustrate one potential approach to quantitative risk assessment for microbial food safety.
This…

This article presents a framework for a Monte Carlo model of a generic food system to illustrate one potential approach to quantitative risk assessment for microbial food safety.

This Monte Carlo model framework links together food ingredients, batch processing, cross contamination, microbial growth, cooking, recontamination, consumption, human exposure to pathogens, the dose-response relationship, and the biologic and economic impact components of such risks. This framework requires refinement with appropriate distributions and mathematical relationships before it can be applied to a specific pathogen-food-consumer situation.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 9, Sept. 1998, p. 1216-1228

Keywords:

dose response, HACCP, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, Monte Carlo method, predictive microbiology, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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19980900
1998
9355 National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Represented by Buchanan, R.L.

Principles of Risk Assessment for Illness Caused by Foodborne Biological Agents
Principles of Risk Assessment for Illness Caused by Foodborne Biological Agents
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000008/art00027

The Risk Assessment Subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria in Foods has prepared a generic document on the principles of risk assessment as applied to biological…

The Risk Assessment Subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria in Foods has prepared a generic document on the principles of risk assessment as applied to biological agents that can cause human foodborne disease. Typical biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa, algae, parasites, and the toxic products that these agents may produce.

Basic principles elaborated to characterize food pathogen risks include the four broadly accepted components of risk assessment. The role of surveillance and investigational activities to link biological agents and their food sources to consumer illness is described as is the role of predictive modeling for food pathogens.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 8, Aug. 1998 , p. 1071-1074

Keywords:

biological hazards, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, predictive microbiology, risk assessment

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19980800
1998
9354 Cassin, M.; Paoli, G.; Lammerding, A.

Simulation modeling for microbial risk assessment
Simulation modeling for microbial risk assessment
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000011/art00025

This article illustrates the role of Monte Carlo simulations in quantitative microbial risk assessments. It explains that Monte Carlo simulation can provide insights into complex processes that are invaluable,…

This article illustrates the role of Monte Carlo simulations in quantitative microbial risk assessments. It explains that Monte Carlo simulation can provide insights into complex processes that are invaluable, and otherwise unavailable, to those charged with the task of risk management.

This paper describes specifically how such goals as research prioritization, risk-based characterization of control points, and risk-based comparison of intervention strategies can be objectively achieved using Monte Carlo simulation.

This article uses as an example a farm-to-fork model of the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef hamburgers.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection Vol. 61, No. 11, Nov. 1998, p. 1560-6.

Keywords:

Escherichia coli, ground beef, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, Monte Carlo method, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, risk management

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19981100
1998
9353 van Gerwen, S.; Zwietering, M.

Growth and inactivation models to be used in quantitative risk assessments
Growth and inactivation models to be used in quantitative risk assessments
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1998/00000061/00000011/art00023

This article discusses the growth and inactivation models that can be used in a stepwise procedure for quantitative risk assessment. The proposed stepwise procedure provides a structured method of…

This article discusses the growth and inactivation models that can be used in a stepwise procedure for quantitative risk assessment. The proposed stepwise procedure provides a structured method of risk assessment and prevents the researcher from getting caught in too much complexity. This simplicity is necessary because of the complex nature of food safety. The principal aspects are highlighted during the procedure and many factors can be omitted since their quantitative effect is negligible.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 11, Nov. 1998, p. 1541-9.

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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19981100
1998
9334 International Life Sciences Institute

Revised Framework for Microbial Risk Assessment
Revised Framework for Microbial Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2006spring/envr/133/001/mrabook_ILSI_EPA_MicroRisk.pdf

The revised ILSI framework for conducting microbial risk assessments (MRA) including the companion glossary of terms for MRA (Section 4) and the table of synonymous terms in risk assessment…

The revised ILSI framework for conducting microbial risk assessments (MRA) including the companion glossary of terms for MRA (Section 4) and the table of synonymous terms in risk assessment (Section 5) are useful elements to consider in the continuing development and evolution of MRA.

This report also includes a summary of the water- and foodborne pathogen risk assessment workshop held on May 11-12, 1999.

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Source: International Life Sciences Institute

Keywords:

drinking water, food pathogens, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, terminology, water, waterborne diseases

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20000000
2000
9325 Lester, R.; Green, L.; Linkov, I.

Site-Specific Applications of Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment: Review of the Literature Since 2000
Site-Specific Applications of Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment: Review of the Literature Since 2000
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00890.x/abstract

This article presents and discusses a broad review of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) literature published since 2000.
Whether and to what extent contaminated sites harm ecologic and human health…

This article presents and discusses a broad review of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) literature published since 2000. 

Whether and to what extent contaminated sites harm ecologic and human health are topics of considerable interest, but also considerable uncertainty. Several federal and state agencies have approved the use of some or many aspects of PRA, but its site-specific application has often been limited to high-profile sites and large projects. Nonetheless, newly developed software tools, and recent federal and state guidance documents formalizing PRA procedures, now make PRA a readily available method of analysis for even small-scale projects. 

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 3, June 2007, p. 635-658

Keywords:

exposure assessment, methodology, Monte Carlo method, risk assessment, risk factors, uncertainty, variability

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20070600
2007
9324 van Schothorst, M.

Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment
Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/1997/00000060/00000011/art00026

The aim of microbiological risk assessment is to facilitate decision making at various levels of food safety management. Food suppliers must make the decision for their customers or consumers.…

The aim of microbiological risk assessment is to facilitate decision making at various levels of food safety management. Food suppliers must make the decision for their customers or consumers. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is the system of choice to produce safe food. During the elaboration of an HACCP plan, many decisions must be made, and risk assessment may be a useful tool in this process. Governments should use risk assessment to select risk management measures for both the internal market and the export market because the GATT/SPS agreement stipulates that standards used for food in international trade should be established on scientific principles and risk assessment. This article provides a practical approach to the risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes as an example.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 60, No.11, Nov. 1997, p.1439-1443

Keywords:

HACCP, Listeria monocytogenes, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk analysis, risk assessment, trade

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19971100
1997
9316 Ross, T.; McMeekin, T.A.

Modeling Microbial Growth within Food Safety Risk Assessments
Modeling Microbial Growth within Food Safety Risk Assessments
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1539-6924.00299/abstract

Risk estimates for food-borne infection will usually depend heavily on numbers of microorganisms present on the food at the time of consumption. As these data are seldom available directly,…

Risk estimates for food-borne infection will usually depend heavily on numbers of microorganisms present on the food at the time of consumption. As these data are seldom available directly, attention has turned to predictive microbiology as a means of inferring exposure at consumption.

Codex guidelines recommend that microbiological risk assessment should explicitly consider the dynamics of microbiological growth, survival, and death in foods. This article describes predictive models and resources for modeling microbial growth in foods, and their utility and limitations in food safety risk assessment.

Quantitative estimates of absolute microbial risk within narrow confidence intervals do not yet appear to be possible. Nevertheless, the expression of microbial ecology knowledge in “predictive microbiology” models does allow decision support using the tools of risk assessment.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 23, No.1, Feb. 2003, p.179-197

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, predictive microbiology, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20030200
2003
9315 Nauta, M.

Microbiological risk assessment models for partitioning and mixing during food handling
Microbiological risk assessment models for partitioning and mixing during food handling
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.10.027

To describe the transmission dynamics of a pathogen over a food pathway in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), several types of processes need to be modelled. Next to microbial…

To describe the transmission dynamics of a pathogen over a food pathway in quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), several types of processes need to be modelled. Next to microbial processes like bacterial growth and inactivation, four food handling processes can be identified. Among these are partitioning and mixing of the food product.  

Some examples show the effect of more realistic modelling on the prevalence and the probability distribution of the number of pathogens per unit of food product. In general, cell clustering will result in lower prevalences, but higher levels of contamination in contaminated food units. With the methods presented, these effects can be quantified. Difficulties in estimating the model parameters and the impact of implementation of the proposed methods on risk estimates in QMRA are discussed.

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology

Keywords:

farm to fork, food processing, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20050415
2005
9314 Nauta, M.; van der Fels-Klerx, I.; Havelaar, A.

poultry-processing model for quantitative microbiological risk assessment.
A poultry-processing model for quantitative microbiological risk assessment.
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15787759

This article presents a poultry-processing model for a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) of Campylobacter, which can also be applied to other QMRAs involving poultry processing.
The same basic…

This article presents a poultry-processing model for a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) of Campylobacter, which can also be applied to other QMRAs involving poultry processing.

The same basic model is applied in each consecutive stage of industrial processing. It describes the effects of inactivation and removal of the bacteria, and the dynamics of cross-contamination in terms of the transfer of Campylobacter from the intestines to the carcass surface and the environment, from the carcasses to the environment, and from the environment to the carcasses.

The authors emphasized that good knowledge of the variability of bacterial loads on poultry entering the process is important. Some additional complications in applying microbiological data obtained in processing plants are discussed.

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb. 2005, p. 85-98.

Keywords:

Campylobacter, decontamination, food processing, microbiological risk assessment, poultry, poultry products, quantitative risk assessment, variability

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20050200
2005
9313 Buchanan, R.L.; Whiting, R.C.

Risk Assessment and Predictive Microbiology
Risk Assessment and Predictive Microbiology
URL: http://www.foodprotection.org/publications/journal-of-food-protection/index.php

The need and desirability of being able to perform quantitative microbial risk assessments for food processing and preparation operations has been discussed extensively for the past several years. However,…

The need and desirability of being able to perform quantitative microbial risk assessments for food processing and preparation operations has been discussed extensively for the past several years. However, there has been little application of this approach in large part due to the need to account for the changes in bacterial populations as a result of food environments and processing.

The use of predictive food microbiology models has the potential for overcoming these limitations. Through integration of predictive modeling with risk assessment, it is possible to estimate how changes in unit operations are likely to affect the overall safety of a food.

This article provides hypothetical examples of how these techniques could be applied to both single-step and multiple-step food processing and preparation operations are provided.

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Source: Journal of Food protection, 1996 Supplement, p. 31-36

Keywords:

food industry, food microbiology, food processing, methodology, models, predictive microbiology, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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19960000
1996
9312 Buchanan, R.L.; Whiting, R.C.

Risk assessment: a means for linking HACCP plans and public health.
Risk assessment: a means for linking HACCP plans and public health.
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9829200

HACCP plan adoption has greatly enhanced the food industry's ability to systematically design programs to ensure the microbiological safety of foods. Yet, this widening acceptance of the HACCP system…

HACCP plan adoption has greatly enhanced the food industry's ability to systematically design programs to ensure the microbiological safety of foods. Yet, this widening acceptance of the HACCP system has revealed several areas where its application is limited due to reliance on qualitative consideration of hazards and their control. In particular, HACCP planning is limited both conceptually and practically by its inability to quantify the potential combined influence of multiple control-point deviations and to relate the successful operation of a HACCP system to a measurable public-health impact. Recent advances in quantitative microbiological risk assessment appear to offer a means of overcoming these limitations. The integration of HACCP plans with the development of dynamic risk-assessment models offers a means for considering the entire farm-to-table continuum and for relating food-manufacturing operations to public health goals. Such capabilities may be critical to establishing equivalence among HACCP systems.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 61, No. 11, 1998, p. 1531-4

Keywords:

HACCP, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, public health, risk assessment

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19981100
1998
9311 Zwietering, M. H.

Quantitative Risk Assessment: Is more complex always better? Simple is not stupid and complex is not always more correct
Quantitative Risk Assessment: Is more complex always better? Simple is not stupid and complex is not always more correct
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.12.025

In quantitative risk assessments a large variety of complexities can be found, from simple and deterministic to very extensive and stochastic. This publication advocates that both simple and…

 

In quantitative risk assessments a large variety of complexities can be found, from simple and deterministic to very extensive and stochastic. This publication advocates that both simple and complex approaches have their value and should be done in parallel.

The simple analysis gives much insight and can help to detect main factors and potential errors in the complex analysis. Extensive analysis with increased complexity suggests better precision but might not increase the accuracy, due to the uncertainty in the additional parameters. However, complex analysis supplies more confidence in certain phenomena and might also increase insight.

This article includes two examples. The first example illustrates effectiveness of sampling plans and the second one is a model comparison of dose–response relations. 

 

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 134, 2009, p. 57-62

Keywords:

detection, dose response, methodology, models, probability distribution, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20090000
2009
9307 Nauta, M.J.

Modeling bacterial growth in quantitative microbiological risk assessment: is it possible?
Modeling bacterial growth in quantitative microbiological risk assessment: is it possible?
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00664-X

In this article, the modular process risk model (MPRM) is briefly introduced as a QMRA modelling framework. This framework can be used to model the transmission of pathogens through…

In this article, the modular process risk model (MPRM) is briefly introduced as a QMRA modelling framework. This framework can be used to model the transmission of pathogens through any food pathway, by assigning one of six basic processes (modules) to each of the processing steps. Bacterial growth is one of these basic processes. It is suggested that a new type of predictive models needs to be developed that incorporates modelling of variability and uncertainty in growth.

 

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 73, No. 2-3, March 2002, p. 1105-1113

Keywords:

HACCP, methodology, predictive microbiology, public health, quantitative risk assessment, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk management, uncertainty, variability

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20020300
2002
9297 Nauta, M.; Christensen, B.

Impact of Consumer Phase Models in Microbial Risk Analysis
The Impact of Consumer Phase Models in Microbial Risk Analysis
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01481.x

In quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), the consumer phase model (CPM) describes the part of the food chain between purchase of the food product at retail and exposure. Construction…

In quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), the consumer phase model (CPM) describes the part of the food chain between purchase of the food product at retail and exposure. Construction of a CPM is complicated by the large variation in consumer food handling practices and a limited availability of data. Therefore, several subjective (simplifying) assumptions have to be made when a CPM is constructed, but with a single CPM their impact on the QMRA results is unclear. The researchers therefore compared the performance of eight published CPMs for Campylobacter in broiler meat in an example of a QMRA, where all the CPMs were analyzed using one single input distribution of concentrations at retail, and the same dose-response relationship. 

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Source: Risk Analysis, [Epub ahead of print], Aug. 25, 2010.

Keywords:

Campylobacter, consumer attitudes, consumer behavior, dose response, farm to fork, food microbiology, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20100825
2010
9238 International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization

Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food
Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/principles/en/index1.html

This IPCS project was created to update the principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. The individual chapters as well as all other relevant parts…

This IPCS project was created to update the principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. The individual chapters as well as all other relevant parts of this document are published here separately.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

chemical hazards, dietary exposure, dose response, hazard characterization, hazard identification, methodology, risk assessment, risk characterization

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n/a
9237 World Health Organization

Risk Assessments of Pathogens
Risk Assessments of Pathogens
URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/micro/jemra/assessment/en/

This website includes several pathogen comodity combination risk assessments

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, Salmonella, Salmonella enteritidis

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00000000
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9234 World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme/International Labour Office

Integrated Risk Assessment
Integrated Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/risk_assessment/en/index.html

This website introduces a framework for an integrated, holistic approach to risk assessment that addresses real life situations of multichemical, multimedia, multiroute, and multispecies exposures.
Historically, chemical risk assessment…

This website introduces a framework for an integrated, holistic approach to risk assessment that addresses real life situations of multichemical, multimedia, multiroute, and multispecies exposures.

Historically, chemical risk assessment methodologies have generally developed independently. Regulatory agencies often use a chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on a single media, a single source, and a single toxic endpoint. Many international and national organizations have expressed a need for an integrated, holistic approach to risk assessment that addresses real life situations of multichemical, multimedia, multiroute, and multispecies exposures.

In response to this need, the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) convened a group of international scientific experts to develop approaches for a framework for integrated risk assessment.

This website includes the report prepared for the WHO/UNEP/ILO International Program on Chemical Safety and a case study.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

chemical hazards, human health, methodology, risk assessment

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9232 International Programme on Chemical Safety

Listing of IPCS Publications and Projects on Risk Assessment Methodology
Listing of IPCS Publications and Projects on Risk Assessment Methodology
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/methodology_alphabetical/en/index.html

This website provides a consolidated list of published Environmental Health Criteria and those in development together with published documents from the IPCS Harmonization project and those relating to new…

This website provides a consolidated list of published Environmental Health Criteria and those in development together with published documents from the IPCS Harmonization project and those relating to new and emerging issues. This list is organized alphabetically by topic.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

chemical hazards, methodology, risk analysis, risk assessment, terminology

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9231 International Programme on Chemical Safety/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Exposure Assessment and Risk Assessment Terminology
Exposure Assessment and Risk Assessment Terminology
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/harmonization/areas/terminology/en/index.html

The related publication of this joint IPCS/OECD project includes a glossary of environmental health terms used in chemical hazard/risk assessment that has been internationally harmonized.
This IPCS Risk Assessment…

The related publication of this joint IPCS/OECD project includes a glossary of environmental health terms used in chemical hazard/risk assessment that has been internationally harmonized.

This IPCS Risk Assessment Terminology document includes risk assessment and expossure assessment terms that are published in a two-part document which may facilitate the mutual use and acceptance of chemical assessments between countries, thus saving resources for both governments and industry.

Part 1: IPCS/OECD Key Generic Terms used in Chemical Hazard/Risk Assessment, presents generic terms used in the process of determining hazard and risk.

Part 2: IPCS Glossary of Key Exposure Assessment Terminology, includes technical terms used in human health and environmental hazard and risk assessment.

The harmonized terms may also be used as a basis for preparing other publications primarily aimed at public information and health education.

The overall mission of this project is to ensure better chemical risk assessment and hence management practices that promote the protection of human health and the environment within the framework of sustainable development.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

chemical hazards, exposure, exposure assessment, methodology, risk analysis, risk assessment, terminology

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20040000
2004
9225 Havelaar, A.H.; Nauta, M.J.; Jansen, J.T.

Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment
Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135579

This article evaluates the proposed definition of Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs…

This article evaluates the proposed definition of Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. The authors concluded that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, the authors proposed the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 93, No.1, May 2004, p. 11-29

Keywords:

disease prevalence, Escherichia coli, food safety objective, methodology, models, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, Shiga toxin, uncertainty, variability

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20040500
2004
9218 Walls, I.; Scott, V.N.

Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment
Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(97)01260-9

A survey was sent to scientists in the food industry to determine their perspective on the role of predictive microbiology in conducting microbial risk assessments. In this paper, responses…

A survey was sent to scientists in the food industry to determine their perspective on the role of predictive microbiology in conducting microbial risk assessments. In this paper, responses to that survey are presented, as well as examples of the potential risk of foodborne illness from a cooked meat product contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and hamburger contaminated with Salmonella.

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 36, No. 2, May 20, 1997, p. 97-102.

Keywords:

food industry, foodborne illness, ground beef, meat, meat products, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, predictive microbiology, risk assessment, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, surveys

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19970520
1997
9198 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Risk Assessment Portal
Risk Assessment Portal
URL: http://www.epa.gov/risk/

This site provides basic information about risk assessments for the public.
Additionally, the site offers a comprehensive set of links to key EPA tools, guidance and guidelines.

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Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Keywords:

chemical hazards, climate change, ecology, food contamination, guidelines, human health, methodology, pesticides, pollution, risk assessment, toxicity, water

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9116 Threat and Consequence Assessment Division, National Homeland Security Research Center, United States Environmental Protection Agency

Compendium of Prior and Current Microbial Risk Assessment Methods
A Compendium of Prior and Current Microbial Risk Assessment Methods
URL: http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P1005UQM.txt

This report contains and extensive compilation of literature and data derived from biological risk assessment methods employed by various industries, such as food safety, drinking water, and public health. 

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Source: Threat and Consequence Assessment Division, National Homeland Security Research Center, United States Environmental Protection Agency

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment

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20070901
2007
8845 Buchanan, R.L., et al

Key Events Dose-Response Framework: its potential for application to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms
The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: its potential for application to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19690997

The present study considers how the Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) might be applied to pathogenic microorganisms, using fetal listeriosis resulting from maternal ingestion of food contaminated with L.…

The present study considers how the Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) might be applied to pathogenic microorganisms, using fetal listeriosis resulting from maternal ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes as an initial example.

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Source: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 49, No. 8, Sep. 2009, p.718-28.

Keywords:

dose response, food pathogens, immunocompromised population, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes, methodology

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20090900
2009
8797 Bassett, J.; McClure, P;

risk assessment approach for fresh fruits
A risk assessment approach for fresh fruits
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119417833/abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the approach used in conducting a fit-for-purpose risk assessment of microbiological human pathogens associated with fresh fruit and the risk management…

The aim of this study was to describe the approach used in conducting a fit-for-purpose risk assessment of microbiological human pathogens associated with fresh fruit and the risk management recommendations made. A qualitative risk assessment for microbiological hazards in fresh fruit was carried out based on the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) framework, modified to consider multiple hazards and all fresh (whole) fruits.

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Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 104, No. 4, 2008, p. 925 - 943

Keywords:

bacteria, biological hazards, Codex Alimentarius, fruits (food), hazard characterization, hazard identification, methodology, pathogenicity, produce, risk assessment

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20080000
2008
8543 Food and Drug Administration

Risk Assessment/Safety Assessment
Risk Assessment/Safety Assessment
URL: http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/ResearchAreas/RiskAssessmentSafetyAssessment/default.htm

This page provides various resources for risk assessment and safety assessment information through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Topic areas include; basic information, allergens, specific bacteria, food additives,…

This page provides various resources for risk assessment and safety assessment information through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Topic areas include; basic information, allergens, specific bacteria, food additives, food defense, and chemical hazards.

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Source: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords:

additives, bacteria, biological hazards, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chemical hazards, Escherichia coli, food additives, food defense, Hepatitis A virus, Listeria monocytogenes, melamine, methodology, prion diseases, risk assessment, safety assessment, Vibrio

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00000000
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8517 Lammerding, A.M.; Fazil, A.

Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment
Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939265?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=18

This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps of food safety risk assessment: hazard identification and exposure assessment, and considerations for different approaches that can be used…

This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps of food safety risk assessment: hazard identification and exposure assessment, and considerations for different approaches that can be used to analyze the relevant information.

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Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 58, No. 3, Jul. 2000, p. 147-157.

Keywords:

biological hazards, exposure assessment, hazard identification, methodology, risk assessment

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20000700
2000
8486 West Suitor, C.; Yaktine, A.; Oria, M.

Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges, Workshop Summary

Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges, Workshop Summary

URL: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11940

In 2007, members of the Interagency Risk Assessment Consortium, the U.S. Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the Institute of Medicines Food…

In 2007, members of the Interagency Risk Assessment Consortium, the U.S. Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the Institute of Medicine’s Food Forum, and the International Life Sciences Institute planned the Nutritional Risk Assessment Workshop. This workshop, which was envisioned as one in a series, focused on opening a dialogue to explore the unique questions and challenges faced by nutritionists and the potential use of risk assessment methodologies to answer them. This workshop summary demonstrates the activities conducted during the meeting.

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Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine

Keywords:

dietary exposure, exposure, exposure assessment, methodology, nutrients, nutrition, nutrition assessment, risk assessment

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20070000
2007
8470 van Gerwen, S.J.C.; Gorris, L.G.M.

Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach
Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15453599

This paper explores the application of aspects of microbial risk assessment (MRA), specifically a tiered approach, in the development of new food and its potential benefits for the food industry.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 67, No. 9, Sep. 2004, p. 2033-2040.

Keywords:

biological hazards, food industry, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment

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20040900
2004
8466 Gardner, I.

Epidemiologic Critique of Current Microbial Risk
Assessment Practices: The Importance of Prevalence and Test
Accuracy Data

An Epidemiologic Critique of Current Microbial Risk
Assessment Practices: The Importance of Prevalence and Test
Accuracy Data

URL: http://www.vet.ksu.edu/depts/dmp/pdf/gardner%20riskanalysis%20dxtests%20JFP.pdf

Here, the author focuses on bias in prevalence estimates attributable to the use of imperfect tests and describes the techniques available to risk analysts for adjustment of test based…

Here, the author focuses on bias in prevalence estimates attributable to the use of imperfect tests and describes the techniques available to risk analysts for adjustment of test based estimates to true prevalence estimates. Also, the article describes methods for evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard reference test that provide a useful alternative approach to traditional methods. Finally, the author demonstrates the utility of Bayesian methods and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation for prevalence inferences for rare events and clustered data obtained from single and multiple populations and for estimation of the accuracy of correlated diagnostic tests.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 67, No. 9, Sep. 2004, p. 2000–2007.

Keywords:

Bayesian theory, disease prevalence, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, microbiology, Monte Carlo method, population characteristics, risk assessment

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20040900
2004
8293 Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (WHO)

Exposure assessment of microbiological hazards in food: Guidelines, MRA Series 7
Exposure assessment of microbiological hazards in food: Guidelines, MRA Series 7
URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/mra7/en/index.html

The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical framework and approach for undertaking exposure assessment of microbiological hazards in foods in the context of a risk assessment…

The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical framework and approach for undertaking exposure assessment of microbiological hazards in foods in the context of a risk assessment or as a stand-alone process.

The guidelines are aimed at those with a scientific or technical background working in the public or private sector and who want or need to learn more about and undertake exposure assessment. However, it is also the intention of the document to assist risk managers and decision-makers to better understand the process of exposure assessment and help them to plan for and to provide the resources required to undertake such an assessment.

This document may also be found here.

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization

Keywords:

biological hazards, exposure assessment, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, microbiology, risk assessment

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20080000
2008
8259 Buchanan, R.

Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3) Food Safety Literature Databases
Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3) Food Safety Literature Databases
URL: http://foodrisk.org/exclusives/cfs3/

The Director of Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3), Dr. Robert Buchanan, has been collecting and indexing relevant articles in the area of microbial food safety for…

The Director of Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3), Dr. Robert Buchanan, has been collecting and indexing relevant articles in the area of microbial food safety for the last 25 years. He is making his personal efforts available to the public through FoodRisk.org. The databases are available in Microsoft Access and are organized in 12 files according to the main subject matter. Once downloaded, the databases can be searched, queried, and used to develop reports using the various capability available within Microsoft Access. The database topics include acid resistance, different biological pathogens, Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP), predictive microbiology, produce, risk assessment, and seafood.

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Source: Center for Food Safety and Security Systems

Keywords:

Aeromonas, Bacillus (bacteria), Bacillus cereus, bacteria, biological hazards, databases, Echinacea (Asteraceae), egg products, eggs, Escherichia coli, HACCP, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes, methodology, predictive microbiology, produce, risk assessment, Salmonella, seafoods, Vibrio

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20090000
2009
8023 World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

JECFA: Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
JECFA: Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
URL: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/jecfa_index_en.asp

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is an international expert scientific committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations…

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is an international expert scientific committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It has been meeting since 1956, initially to evaluate the safety of food additives. Its work now also includes the evaluation of contaminants, naturally occurring toxicants and residues of veterinary drugs in food.

JECFA normally meets twice a year with individual agendas covering either (i) food additives, contaminants and naturally occurring toxicants in food or (ii) residues of veterinary drugs in food. At JECFA's site, it is possible to find publications, guidelines, transparent process information, and projects.

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Source: World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Keywords:

chemical hazards, food additives, food coloring, food labeling, methodology, risk assessment

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00000000
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7907 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbial Risk Assessment
Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbial Risk Assessment
URL: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/microbial/thesaurus_index.cfm

Federal and international agencies, private sector organizations, and academics use terms and definitions differently in their microbial risk assessments. This Thesaurus is a compendium of risk assessment terms found…

Federal and international agencies, private sector organizations, and academics use terms and definitions differently in their microbial risk assessments. This Thesaurus is a compendium of risk assessment terms found in frameworks, methodologies, and assessments. It provides insight into how various entities use specific microbial risk assessment terms in their activities and helps those responsible for such assessments both conduct and communicate about them more effectively. This Thesaurus was developed by the USEPA, Office of Water

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Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Keywords:

hazard characterization, hazard identification, methodology, risk assessment, risk characterization, risk management, terminology

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20070900
2007
7878 Jaykus, L.A.

Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment to Microbial Food Safety Risks
The Application of Quantitative Risk Assessment to Microbial Food Safety Risks
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10408419609105483

The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the conceptual framework for quantitative microbial risk assessment within the standard description provided by the National Academy of…

The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the conceptual framework for quantitative microbial risk assessment within the standard description provided by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) paradigm.

Each of the sequential steps in quantitative risk assessment, i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization, are discussed in detail, providing information on applications, tools for conducting the analyses, and methodological and/or data limitations.

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Source: Critical Review of Microbiology, Vol. 22, No. 4, Jan. 1996, p. 279-293.

Keywords:

dose response, exposure, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, hazard identification, methodology, quantitative risk assessment, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk characterization

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19960100
1996
7849 Havelaar, A.H., et al

Integrating risk assessment, epidemiology and economics to support decision making in food safety
Integrating risk assessment, epidemiology and economics to support decision making in food safety
URL: http://fsrio.nal.usda.gov/nal_web/fsrio/printresults.php?ID=4883

This report describes an integrated scientific approach to supporting food safety decisions by utilizing veterinary and medical epidemiology, risk assessment for the farm-to-fork food chain, and agricultural and health…

This report describes an integrated scientific approach to supporting food safety decisions by utilizing veterinary and medical epidemiology, risk assessment for the farm-to-fork food chain, and agricultural and health economics. Included are discussions on the policy cycle, the food safety problem in general, prioritizing health impacts, and policy implementation. Also included are risk assessment models and data and a discussion on economics.

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Source: MED-VET-NET

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, cost of illness analysis, economics, methodology, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk communication, risk management

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20060228
2006
7793 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (FAO) / World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO)

use of microbiological risk assessment outputs to develop practical risk management strategies: metrics to improve food safety
The use of microbiological risk assessment outputs to develop practical risk management strategies: metrics to improve food safety
URL: ftp://ftp.fao.org/ag/agn/food/kiel_en.pdf

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Keywords:

antibiotic resistance, bacteria, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, risk management

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00000000
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7786 Committee on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA, National Research Council

Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessments
Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessments
URL: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12209#toc

Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in…

Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in he Federal Government (also known as the Red Book). The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making. Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields.

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Source: National Academies of Sciences

Keywords:

Environmental Protection Agency, methodology, risk assessment

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00000000
n/a
7781 Havelaar, A.H.; Evers, E.G.; Nauta, M.J.

Challenges of quantitative microbial risk assessment at EU level
Challenges of quantitative microbial risk assessment at EU level
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2008.09.003

The step towards quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is in development and is the focus of this review.

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Source: Trends in Food Science & Technology, V. 19, Supplement 1, p. S26-S33.

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20081100
2008
7395 Williams, R.

Integrating Risk Assessment and Economics
Integrating Risk Assessment and Economics
URL: http://foodrisk.org/default/assets/File/IRAC-event-2007-11-16-Williams.pdf

This presentation discusses Integrating Risk Assessment and Benefit-Cost Analysis. It was presented at the 2007 IRAC-sponsored Public Conference 'Risk Assessment, Economic Analysis, and Foodborne Illness Regulations'. All the agenda…

This presentation discusses Integrating Risk Assessment and Benefit-Cost Analysis. It was presented at the 2007 IRAC-sponsored Public Conference 'Risk Assessment, Economic Analysis, and Foodborne Illness Regulations'. All the agenda and presentation information can be found from this link.

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Source: FoodRisk.org/Interagency Risk Assessment Consortium

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, economics, methodology, risk assessment, risk management

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20071127
2007
6772 Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Risk Assessments
Risk Assessments
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Risk_Assessments/index.asp

The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service conducts food safety risk assessments related to chemical and microbiological hazards in meat, poultry, and egg products. These risk assessments are used…

The USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service conducts food safety risk assessments related to chemical and microbiological hazards in meat, poultry, and egg products. These risk assessments are used to evaluate intervention strategies to reduce foodborne risks and to guide, support, and enhance the Agency's overall decision-making process, risk-management policies, outreach efforts, data collection initiatives, and research priorities. This page links to reports and models, as well as responses to peer review and public comments for FSIS risk assessments. Pathogen-commodity combinations addressed include BSE in cattle, E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, Salmonella spp. in egg products, and Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs

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Source: Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

biological hazards, egg products, eggs, meat, methodology, poultry, risk assessment

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00000000
n/a
3389 Exposure Terminology Subcommittee, IPCS Exposure Assessment Planning Workgroup, Harmonization of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals, International Programme on Chemical Safety

Glossary of Exposure Assessment-Related Terms: A Compilation
Glossary of Exposure Assessment-Related Terms: A Compilation
URL: http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/methods/harmonization/en/compilation_nov2001.pdf

Compilation of terms related to exposure assessment from 57 glossaries, intended to help researchers to find differences in definitions of terms

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Source: IPCS Harmonization Project, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization

Keywords:

exposure, exposure assessment, risk analysis, terminology

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20011101
2001
3331 World Health Organization

Microbiological Risks Publications
Microbiological Risks Publications
URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/en/

This website includes several links to FAO/WHO and Codex publications related to microbiological risk analysis.

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Source: World Health Organization

Keywords:

biological hazards, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, microbiology, research projects, risk assessment

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00000000
n/a
2362 Allanou, R.

ORATS (Online EUropean Risk Assessment Tracking System)
ORATS (Online EUropean Risk Assessment Tracking System)
URL: http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?PGM=ora

ORATS (Online EUropean Risk Assessment Tracking System) provides information on the progress of implementation of Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 also known as Existing Substances Regulation (ESR), introducing a…

ORATS (Online EUropean Risk Assessment Tracking System) provides information on the progress of implementation of Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 also known as Existing Substances Regulation (ESR), introducing a comprehensive framework for the evaluation and control of "existing substances".

The Article 8 of the Regulation states that the Commission, in consultation with the Member States, will regularly draw up lists of priority substances which require immediate attention because of their potential effects to man or the environment. The Commission and Member States utilise the information collected during step I of the regulation (Data Collection) as a basis for selecting priority substances.

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Source: European Chemicals Bureau, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission

Keywords:

chemical hazards, databases

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00000000
n/a
2019 World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

JEMRA: Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Microbiological Risk Assessment
JEMRA: Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meetings on Microbiological Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/micro/jemra/en/

This website provides information on FAO/WHO activities related to microbiological risk assessment. It includes risk assessment and risk management documents, guidelines for conducting microbial risk assessment, related links, and…

This website provides information on FAO/WHO activities related to microbiological risk assessment. It includes risk assessment and risk management documents, guidelines for conducting microbial risk assessment, related links, and more. JEMRA website may also be found here

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Source: World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Keywords:

biological hazards, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment

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00000000
n/a
1510 Vose, D.

Use of Microbial Risk Assessment in Decision-Making
Use of Microbial Risk Assessment in Decision-Making
URL: http://www.foodrisk.umd.edu/IRAC/events/2002-07-24/presentations/Vose.pps

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It presents the principles of risk…

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It presents the principles of risk assessment from several sources (Codex, OIE, Society for Risk Analysis), discusses current modelling practices and problems associated with current risk analysis practices, and presents a case for focusing on decisions when performing risk analysis. The pdf version of this presentation is available here

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

decision support systems, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk analysis, risk assessment

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20020724
2002
1509 van Gerwen, S.; Gorris, L.

MRA In Practice: Application of MRA in the Industry
MRA In Practice: Application of MRA in the Industry
URL: http://www.foodrisk.umd.edu/IRAC/events/2002-07-24/presentations/vanGerwen.pps

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It includes a discussion of the…

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It includes a discussion of the application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) in industry, including the differences in purpose, scope, input, and output between governmental and industry use of MRA and the use of MRA and predictive modelling in industry. The pdf version of this presentation is available here

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

biological hazards, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, models, risk assessment

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20020724
2002
1508 Schaffner, D.

Modeling Cross-Contamination in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
Modeling Cross-Contamination in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
URL: http://foodrisk.org/default/assets/File/IRAC-event-2002-07-24-Schaffner.pdf

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It describes laboratory experiments for studying…

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It describes laboratory experiments for studying cross- contamination, data analysis methods, results, bibliography of their published work, a listing of other research projects on microbial behavior in the kitchen environment, and other recent publications. It also presents other considerations for quantitative microbiological risk assessment associated with cross-contamination, and discusses the future outcomes of these types of studies as a means to improve cross contamination modules used in risk assessments. 

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

biological hazards, exposure, exposure pathways, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment

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20020726
2002
1506 Paoli, G.

Microbial Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned and Future Directions
Microbial Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned and Future Directions
URL: http://foodrisk.org/default/assets/File/IRAC-event-2002-07-24-Paoli.pdf

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It presents a "risk assessment" of…

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It presents a "risk assessment" of microbiological risk assessment. It includes an overview of the process of generating a risk assessment, identifies "hazards" associated with the risk assessment process, discusses solution sets and process characterization, offers a tiered approach to methodology development, and presents conclusions on the risk assessment process. 

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

biological hazards, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment

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20020724
2002
1497 Jouve, J.

Microbiological Risk Assessment in Developing Countries
Microbiological Risk Assessment in Developing Countries
URL: http://www.foodrisk.umd.edu/IRAC/events/2002-07-24/presentations/Jouve.pps

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It discusses the value of microbiological…

This presentation was given at the 1st International Conference on Microbiological Risk Assessment: Foodborne Hazards, held in Adelphi, MD on July 24-26, 2002. It discusses the value of microbiological risk assessment and contrasts developing and developed countries, including what drives food safety systems, what are the priorities related to food safety, and what important factors are weak or lacking in developing countries. Finally, it presents ways to build capabilities for microbiological risk assessment in developing countries, with an emphasis on the need to enhance scientific and technical expertise. The pdf version of this presentation is available here

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Source: FoodRisk.org

Keywords:

methodology, risk assessment

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20020724
2002
1192 Risk Analysis Working Group, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration

Initiation and Conduct of All 'Major' Risk Assessments Within a Risk Analysis Framework
Initiation and Conduct of All 'Major' Risk Assessments Within a Risk Analysis Framework
URL: http://webharvest.gov/peth04/20041031125526/http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/rafw-toc.html

This report includes an overview of the CFSAN risk analysis framework, a description of a decision-based approach to identify and select risk assessments, a discussion of conducting risk assessment…

This report includes an overview of the CFSAN risk analysis framework, a description of a decision-based approach to identify and select risk assessments, a discussion of conducting risk assessment within the risk analysis framework, examples of communication questions between risk assessors and risk managers, a list of risk communication activities, criteria for identifying candidate risk assessments, and criteria for evaluating technical feasibility

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Source: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration

Keywords:

decision making, Food and Drug Administration, guidelines, methodology, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk communication, risk management

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20020300
2002
711 Lammerding, A.M., and Greg M.P.

Quantitative Risk Assessment: An Emerging Tool for Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
Quantitative Risk Assessment: An Emerging Tool for Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol3no4/lammer.htm

Report examines the use of quantitative risk assessment in environmental toxicology and the potential advantages of applying quantitative risk assessment to the field of microbial food and water safety

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Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1997, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Keywords:

drinking water, ecotoxicology, emerging diseases, food contamination, food pathogens, human health and safety, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, quantitative risk assessment, risk assessment, water

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19971000
1997
391 Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, Office of the Chief Economist, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis
Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis
URL: http://www.usda.gov/oce/risk_assessment/

This office works to ensure that USDA regulations are based on solid scientific and economic analysis. The site contains upcoming events, publications, and links to other resources

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Source: Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, Office of the Chief Economist, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, economics, government agencies, risk assessment, United States, USDA

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153 National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
URL: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/index.cfm

Database of chronic non-cancer and cancer health hazard information for over 500 substances. Includes dose-response data

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Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Keywords:

carcinogens, chemical hazards, databases, dose response, food contamination, health hazards, neoplasms, pollutants, toxicology

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1 Committee on Risk Assessments of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment
Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment
URL: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904894X

This document describes the process of risk assessment, especially as applied to airborne pollutants. Terms are defined within the text

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Source: National Academy Press

Keywords:

air pollution, airborne transmission, decision making, methodology, risk assessment, terminology

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19940000
1994