Sampling

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24 record(s) found




ID Author(s) Title / Description Publication Year
10294 McMeekin, T.A., ed.

Detecting Pathogens in Food
Detecting Pathogens in Food
URL: http://www.woodheadpublishing.com/en/book.aspx?bookID=391

Identifying pathogens in food quickly and accurately is one of the most important requirements in food processing. The ideal detection method needs to combine such qualities as sensitivity, specificity,…

Identifying pathogens in food quickly and accurately is one of the most important requirements in food processing. The ideal detection method needs to combine such qualities as sensitivity, specificity, speed and suitability for on-line applications. Detecting pathogens in food brings together a distinguished international team of contributors to review the latest techniques in microbiological analysis and how they can best be used to ensure food safety. 

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Source: Woodhead Publishing in Food Science and Technology, 2000

Keywords:

analytical specificity, biosensors, culture media, detection, diagnostic sensitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, food pathogens, food processing, genetic techniques and protocols, human health and safety, immunologic techniques, laboratory techniques, microbial detection, microscopy, pathogen occurrence

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20000000
2000
9786 Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Understanding Microbiological Sampling and Testing
Understanding Microbiological Sampling and Testing
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/EIOA_Micro_Sampling_Testing.pdf

This presenation aims to cover aspects of microbiological sampling and testing that should be considered for food safety programs. This included sample collection and laboratory methods. Specific examples include…

This presenation aims to cover aspects of microbiological sampling and testing that should be considered for food safety programs. This included sample collection and laboratory methods. Specific examples include E. coli 0157:H7. Includes information on N60 sampling. 

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Source: Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

data collection, Escherichia coli O157:H7, food microbiology, laboratory techniques, microbiology, sampling

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n/a
9785 Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

2010 U.S. National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plans - "Blue Book"
2010 U.S. National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plans - "Blue Book"
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/2010_Blue_Book/index.asp

The United States National Residue Program (U.S. NRP) 2010 Scheduled Sampling Plan (Blue Book) provides the scheduled sampling plan for testing chemical compounds in products from food animals and…

The United States National Residue Program (U.S. NRP) 2010 Scheduled Sampling Plan (Blue Book) provides the scheduled sampling plan for testing chemical compounds in products from food animals and egg products produced domestically or imported into the United States for CY2010. In addition, this book provides detailed information on how the chemical compounds are selected for inclusion in the scheduled sampling plan.

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Source: Office of Public Health Science, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

chemical residues, drug residues, egg products, food animals, food contamination, pesticide residues, sampling, trade, United States, veterinary drugs

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20110100
2011
9625 Food Safety Research and Response Network

Sample Size Calculations
Sample Size Calculations
URL: http://www.fsrrn.net/modules/content/index.php?id=13

All epidemiologic studies should have a statistical justification for the sample size that is proposed in the experimental design. These notes provide guidance for 3 common sample size…

All epidemiologic studies should have a statistical justification for the sample size that is proposed in the experimental design. These notes provide guidance for 3 common sample size calculations: estimation of prevalence or incidence of disease, detection of disease, and detection of a difference in prevalence or incidence of disease between groups. 

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Source: Food Safety Research and Response Network

Keywords:

detection, disease incidence, disease prevalence, foodborne illness, guidelines, sampling

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20070000
2007
9624 Health Canada

Guidance for Industry: Sample Collection and Testing for Sprouts and Spent Irrigation Water
Guidance for Industry: Sample Collection and Testing for Sprouts and Spent Irrigation Water
URL: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/legislation/guide-ld/sprout_water_testing_analyse_pousses_eau-eng.php

This guidance document is part of Health Canada's Policy to Manage Health Risk Associated with the Consumption of Sprouted Seeds and Beans. It is to be used by stakeholders,…

This guidance document is part of Health Canada's Policy to Manage Health Risk Associated with the Consumption of Sprouted Seeds and Beans. It is to be used by stakeholders, sprout producers, private laboratories and government personnel when doing an analysis for the detection of Salmonella species (spp.) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in sprouts or spent irrigation water.

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Source: Health Canada

Keywords:

bean sprouts, beans, Canada, detection, Escherichia coli O157:H7, guidelines, industry, irrigation water, Salmonella, sampling, seeds, sprouts (food), water

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20061200
2006
9371 Williams, M.S.; Ebel, E.D.; Wells, S.J.

Population inferences from targeted sampling with uncertain epidemiologic information
Population inferences from targeted sampling with uncertain epidemiologic information
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.12.008

Targeted sampling is an increasingly popular method of data collection in animal-based epidemiologic studies. Inferences drawn from a targeted sample require information regarding the epidemiology of the disease under…

Targeted sampling is an increasingly popular method of data collection in animal-based epidemiologic studies. Inferences drawn from a targeted sample require information regarding the epidemiology of the disease under surveillance, which is generally not known with certainty. This study describes estimators for both the detection of disease and the estimation of prevalence when targeted sampling is employed. Modifications of these estimators are provided that account for the uncertainty in the parameters that describe the epidemiology of the disease. Results of a simulation study are provided to illustrate the effect of the uncertainty in these parameters.

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Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 89, No 1-2, May 1, 2009, p. 25-33.

Keywords:

detection, disease prevalence, epidemiology, models, monitoring, uncertainty

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20090501
2009
9180 Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Guidance for Small and Very Small Establishments on Sampling Beef Products for Escherichia coli O157:H7
Guidance for Small and Very Small Establishments on Sampling Beef Products for Escherichia coli O157:H7
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Draft_Guidance_SVSP_sampling_for_ecoli.pdf

This document is a draft for stakeholder comment. The purpose of this guidance is to help small and very small establishments develop sampling plans for monitoring the effectiveness of…

This document is a draft for stakeholder comment. The purpose of this guidance is to help small and very small establishments develop sampling plans for monitoring the effectiveness of process controls that are designed to prevent Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 contaminated product from leaving the establishment. If you would like additional information about any aspect of this guidance, consult the larger document that is attached.

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Source: Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

beef, control methods, Escherichia coli O157:H7, food inspection, Food Safety and Inspection Service, industry, monitoring

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20080812
2008
8967 Food Standards Agency

Food Sampling by District Councils in Northern Ireland in 2008
A report of the Northern Ireland Strategic Committee on Food Surveillance

Food Sampling by District Councils in Northern Ireland in 2008
A report of the Northern Ireland Strategic Committee on Food Surveillance

URL: http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/foodsamplingni2008.pdf

The report provides an overview of the microbiological and chemical analysis of food samples recorded on the FSS(UK) database during 2008 by the 26 District Councils in Northern Ireland,…

The report provides an overview of the microbiological and chemical analysis of food samples recorded on the FSS(UK) database during 2008 by the 26 District Councils in Northern Ireland, and is the second report of the Northern Ireland Strategic Committee on Food Surveillance.

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Source: Food Standards Agency

Keywords:

biological hazards, chemical hazards, monitoring

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20100700
2010
8854 Govindaraju, K.; Bebbington, M.; Wrathall, T.

Statistical Evaluation of the New Zealand Food Safety Authority Sampling Protocol for Imported Food
Statistical Evaluation of the New Zealand Food Safety Authority Sampling Protocol for Imported Food
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123268438/abstract

This article presents a statistical evaluation of the strategies of skipping inspection and partial testing of imported food consignments incorporated in the import clearance procedures formulated by the New…

This article presents a statistical evaluation of the strategies of skipping inspection and partial testing of imported food consignments incorporated in the import clearance procedures formulated by the New Zealand
Food Safety Authority (NZFSA).

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Source: Risk Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 2010, p. 817-826

Keywords:

imports

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20100500
2010
8606 Snary, E.L.; Munday, D.K.; Arnold, M.E.; Cook, A.J.C.

Zoonoses Action Plan Salmonella Monitoring Programme: An Investigation of the Sampling Protocol
Zoonoses Action Plan Salmonella Monitoring Programme: An Investigation of the Sampling Protocol
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/2010/00000073/00000003/art00011

The Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) Salmonella Programme was established by the British Pig Executive to monitor Salmonella prevalence in quality-assured British pigs at slaughter by testing a sample of…

The Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) Salmonella Programme was established by the British Pig Executive to monitor Salmonella prevalence in quality-assured British pigs at slaughter by testing a sample of pigs with a meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Salmonella. Farms were assigned a ZAP level (1 to 3) depending on the monitored prevalence, and ZAP 2 or 3 farms were required to act to reduce the prevalence. The ultimate goal was to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis attributable to British pork. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the ZAP sampling protocol.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 73, No. 3, Mar. 2010, p. 488-494.

Keywords:

disease prevalence, human health, meat, meat inspection, models, monitoring, pork, Salmonella, swine, zoonoses

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20100300
2010
8362 Arnold, M.E.; Cook, A.J.C.

Estimation of sample sizes for pooled faecal sampling for detection of Salmonella in pigs
Estimation of sample sizes for pooled faecal sampling for detection of Salmonella in pigs
URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=6418144&jid=HYG&volumeId=137&issueId=12&aid=6418140&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0950268809002702

Salmonella infection in breeding pigs was the subject of a European survey in 2008. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity of pooled faecal sampling and…

Salmonella infection in breeding pigs was the subject of a European survey in 2008. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity of pooled faecal sampling and to calculate the required sample sizes.

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Source: Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 137, 2009, p. 1734-1741.

Keywords:

bacteria, Bayesian theory, diagnostic sensitivity, disease prevalence, mathematical models, monitoring, pathogens, pork, Salmonella, swine

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20090000
2009
8352 Tompkin, R.

Environmental sampling – A tool to verify the effectiveness of preventive hygiene measures
Environmental sampling – A tool to verify the effectiveness of preventive hygiene measures
URL: http://www.icmsf.iit.edu/pdf/045-051_Tompkin.pdf

This presentation describes how an environmental sampling program can be established for this purpose. The principles outlined also are applicable for controlling microorganisms that lead to unacceptable spoilage of food.

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Source: Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene, Vol. 95, 2004, p. 45 - 51.

Keywords:

disease prevention, methodology, microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment

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20040000
2004
8351 Dahms, S.

Microbiological sampling plans –Statistical aspects
Microbiological sampling plans –Statistical aspects
URL: http://www.icmsf.iit.edu/pdf/032-044_Dahms.pdf

This lecture addresses the two general types of sampling plans, attributes sampling plans and variables sampling plans, which are used in microbiological testing to make decisions concerning the safety…

This lecture addresses the two general types of sampling plans, attributes sampling plans and variables sampling plans, which are used in microbiological testing to make decisions concerning the safety or quality of foods.

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Source: Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene, Vol. 95, 2004, p. 32-44.

Keywords:

methodology, microbiological risk assessment, microbiology, risk assessment, statistics

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20040000
2004
8311 International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

Software Downloads: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
Software Downloads: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
URL: http://www.icmsf.iit.edu/main/software_downloads.html

This page offers two download-able software programs, microbiological sampling plans and download standard program, a new version related to a publication printed in the journal Food Control.

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Source: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods

Keywords:

microbiology, microorganisms, population characteristics, predictive microbiology, probability distribution, research projects

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8307 United Kingdom Food Standards Agency

Sampling guidance
Sampling guidance
URL: http://www.food.gov.uk/foodindustry/guidancenotes/foodguid/guidance/

The guidance offers advice on the issues local authorities may wish to consider when setting their sampling programs each year and go on to give practical guidance in taking…

The guidance offers advice on the issues local authorities may wish to consider when setting their sampling programs each year and go on to give practical guidance in taking samples for food standards and feedingstuffs.

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Source: United Kingdom Food Standards Agency

Keywords:

feed contamination

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8255 Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, H.; Lind, P.; Collins, M.T.

Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases
Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(00)00119-7

This study calculates conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and shows their relationship. The writers use published data for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and…

This study calculates conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and shows their relationship. The writers use published data for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne’s disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.

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Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, May 30, 2000, p. 107-122.

Keywords:

animal diseases, bacteria, Brucella, cattle, monitoring, pathogens, pork, Protozoa, swine, Toxoplasma gondii

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20000530
2000
8249 Su, C.; Gardner, I.A.; Johnson, W.O.

Diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence inferences based on joint and sequential testing with finite population sampling
Diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence inferences based on joint and sequential testing with finite population sampling
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/109085308/abstract

In this paper, the writers develop statistical methods for evaluating diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence estimation based on finite sample data in the absence of a gold standard. Moreover,…

In this paper, the writers develop statistical methods for evaluating diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence estimation based on finite sample data in the absence of a gold standard. Moreover, two tests are often applied simultaneously for the purpose of obtaining a joint testing strategy that has either higher overall sensitivity or specificity than either of the two tests considered singly. Sequential versions of such strategies are often applied in order to reduce the cost of testing. Thus, joint (simultaneous and sequential) testing strategies and inference for them are discussed.

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Source: Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 14, Jun. 29, 2004, p. 2237 - 2255.

Keywords:

animal diseases, animal health, cattle, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, diagnostic techniques, disease prevalence, population characteristics, reference standards

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20040629
2004
8247 Branscum, A.J.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.

Estimation of diagnostic-test sensitivity and specificity through Bayesian modeling
Estimation of diagnostic-test sensitivity and specificity through Bayesian modeling
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.12.005

Here, recent Bayesian approaches to estimation (based on cross-sectional sampling designs) of the sensitivity and specificity of one or more diagnostic tests are reviewed. The primary goal is to…

Here, recent Bayesian approaches to estimation (based on cross-sectional sampling designs) of the sensitivity and specificity of one or more diagnostic tests are reviewed. The primary goal is to provide veterinary researchers with a concise presentation of the computational aspects involved in using the Bayesian framework for test evaluation. The authors consider estimation of diagnostic-test sensitivity and specificity in the following settings: (i) one test in one population, (ii) two conditionally independent tests in two or more populations, (iii) two correlated tests in two or more populations, and (iv) three tests in two or more populations, where two tests are correlated but jointly independent of the third test.

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Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 68, No. 2-4, May 10, 2005, p. 145-163.

Keywords:

animal diseases, animal health, animal-based foods, Bayesian theory, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, population characteristics, pork, Protozoa, statistics, swine, Toxoplasma gondii, viruses

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20050510
2005
8246 Georgiadis, M.P.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.

Sample size determination for estimation of the accuracy of two conditionally independent tests in the absence of a gold standard
Sample size determination for estimation of the accuracy of two conditionally independent tests in the absence of a gold standard
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.04.004

Here, the authors developed an Excel spreadsheet template to calculate sample sizes to estimate sensitivity and specificity with desired precision in the absence of a gold standard. Calculations are…

Here, the authors developed an Excel spreadsheet template to calculate sample sizes to estimate sensitivity and specificity with desired precision in the absence of a gold standard. Calculations are predicated on the use of two conditionally independent tests for screening animals from two populations and are based on the methods produced by a previous study.

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Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 71, No. 1-2, Sep. 30, 2005, p. 1-10.

Keywords:

animal health, bovine tuberculosis, cattle, diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, diagnostic techniques, population characteristics, reference standards, statistics

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20090930
2009
8245 Branscum, A.J.; Johnson, W.O.; Gardner, I.A.

Sample size calculations for disease freedom and prevalence estimation surveys
Sample size calculations for disease freedom and prevalence estimation surveys
URL: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112140119/abstract

This study developed a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters…

This study developed a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters (cluster-level prevalence) within a country or region.

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Source: Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 25, No.15, Nov. 5, 2005, p. 2658 - 2674.

Keywords:

animal diseases, bacteria, Bayesian theory, disease prevalence, infection, pathogens, public health, surveys

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20051105
2005
8090 Brehm-Stecher, B.; Young, C.; Jaykus, L.; Tortorello, M.

Sample Preparation: The Forgotten Beginning
Sample Preparation: The Forgotten Beginning
URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iafp/jfp/2009/00000072/00000008/art00031

The purpose of this review is to present the current state of sample preparation, to identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for improvement, and to recognize the need to support…

The purpose of this review is to present the current state of sample preparation, to identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for improvement, and to recognize the need to support greater research and development efforts on preparative methods in food microbiology. The discussion focuses on the need to push technological developments toward methods that do not rely on enrichment culture. Among the four functional components of microbiological analysis (i.e., sampling, separation, concentration, detection), the separation and concentration components need to be researched more extensively to achieve rapid, direct, and quantitative methods.

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Source: Journal of Food Protection, Vol.72, No. 8, Aug. 2009. p. 1774-1789.

Keywords:

microbiology

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20090800
2009
8051 International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF)

Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications
Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications
URL: http://www.icmsf.iit.edu/pdf/icmsf2.pdf

Each chapter discusses the microbiological hazards associated with a
commodity group and, based on a consideration of their relevance, may
propose criteria.

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Source: ICMSF, Second Ed, Blackwell Scientific Publications

Keywords:

biological hazards, microbiology

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00000000
n/a
7832 Withee, J.; Schlosser, W.

Risk-based Sampling for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef and Beef Trim
Risk-based Sampling for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef and Beef Trim
URL: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Ecoli_Sampling_RA_Report_Feb08.pdf

This report describes an E. coli O157:H7 risk-based verification sampling program developed by FSIS. The program provides comprehensive verification of domestic ground beef servings and allocates more samples to…

This report describes an E. coli O157:H7 risk-based verification sampling program developed by FSIS. The program provides comprehensive verification of domestic ground beef servings and allocates more samples to establishments with a higher risk of causing E. coli O157:H7 illness. The objectives of the program were to increase the proportion of FSIS samples that were more likely to produce product contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, to allocate FSIS resources more efficiently by verifying a greater portion of the U.S. trim and ground beef supply with the same number of samples as previous, and to verify all samples at a reasonable frequency. Included in the report are the Executive Summary and the Response to Peer Review Comments.

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Source: Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Keywords:

beef, food processing, Food Safety and Inspection Service, meat, methodology, poultry, risk assessment, risk management, ruminants

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20080200
2008
4140 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Requirements Pertaining to Sampling Services and Private Laboratories Used in Connection With Imported Food
Requirements Pertaining to Sampling Services and Private Laboratories Used in Connection With Imported Food
URL: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2004_register&docid=fr29ap04-13

Proposed rule regarding the use of sampling services and private laboratories for analysis of imported foods. Includes discussion of requirements for persons using sampling services and private labs for…

Proposed rule regarding the use of sampling services and private laboratories for analysis of imported foods. Includes discussion of requirements for persons using sampling services and private labs for imported foods, requirements for sampling services, and requirements for private laboratories. An impact analysis is also included. A correction to this proposed rule was published in 69 FR 29912, available through GPO Access

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Source: Federal Register, Vol. 69, No. 83, Apr. 29, 2004, p. 23460-23473./GPO Access, U.S. Government Printing Office

Keywords:

cost benefit analysis, economics, imports, issues and policy, methodology, product quality, quality control, risk management, trade

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20040429
2004